|Published on Tuesday, December 31, 2002 by the Guardian/UK|
"Our Quality of Life Peaked in 1974. It's All Downhill Now
We will pay the price for believing the world has infinite resources"
By George Monbiot
With the turning of every year, we expect our lives to improve. As long as
the economy continues to grow, we imagine, the world will become a more
congenial place in which to live. There is no basis for this belief.
take into account such factors as pollution and the depletion of natural
capital, we see that the quality of life peaked in the UK in 1974 and in the
US in 1968, and has been falling ever since.
We are going backwards.
The reason should not be hard to grasp. Our economic system depends upon
never-ending growth, yet we live in a world with finite resources. Our
expectation of progress is, as a result, a delusion.
This is the great heresy of our times, the fundamental truth which cannot be
spoken. It is dismissed as furiously by those who possess power today -
governments, business, the media - as the discovery that the earth orbits
the sun was denounced by the late medieval church. Speak this truth in
public and you are dismissed as a crank, a prig, a lunatic.
Capitalism is a millenarian cult, raised to the status of a world religion.
Like communism, it is built upon the myth of endless exploitation. Just as
Christians imagine that their God will deliver them from death, capitalists
believe that theirs will deliver them from finity. The world's resources,
they assert, have been granted eternal life.
The briefest reflection will show that this cannot be true. The laws of
thermodynamics impose inherent limits upon biological production. Even the
repayment of debt, the pre-requisite of capitalism, is mathematically
possible only in the short-term. As Heinrich Haussmann has shown, a single
pfennig invested at 5% compounded interest in the year AD 0 would, by 1990,
have reaped a volume of gold 134bn times the weight of the planet.
Capitalism seeks a value of production commensurate with the repayment of
Now, despite the endless denials, it is clear that the wall towards which we
are accelerating is not very far away. Within five or 10 years, the global
consumption of oil is likely to outstrip supply. Every year, up to 75bn
tonnes of topsoil are washed into the sea as a result of unsustainable
farming, which equates to the loss of around 9m hectares of productive land.
As a result, we can maintain current levels of food production only with the
application of phosphate, but phosphate reserves are likely to be exhausted
within 80 years. Forty per cent of the world's food is produced with the
help of irrigation; some of the key aquifers are already running dry as a
result of overuse.
One reason why we fail to understand a concept as simple as finity is that
our religion was founded upon the use of other people's resources: the gold,
rubber and timber of Latin America; the spices, cotton and dyes of the East
Indies; the labor and land of Africa. The frontier of exploitation seemed,
to the early colonists, infinitely expandable. Now that geographical
expansion has reached its limits, capitalism has moved its frontier from
space to time: seizing resources from an infinite future.
An entire industry has been built upon the denial of ecological constraints.
Every national newspaper in Britain lamented the "disappointing" volume of
sales before Christmas. Sky News devoted much of its Christmas Eve coverage
to live reports from Brent Cross, relaying the terrifying intelligence that
we were facing "the worst Christmas for shopping since 2000". The survival
of humanity has been displaced in the newspapers by the quarterly results of
companies selling tableware and knickers.
Partly because they have been brainwashed by the corporate media, partly
because of the scale of the moral challenge with which finity confronts
them, many people respond to the heresy with unmediated savagery.
Last week this column discussed the competition for global grain supplies
between humans and livestock. One correspondent, a man named David Roucek,
wrote to inform me that the problem is the result of people "breeding
indiscriminately ... When a woman has displayed evidence that she totally
disregards the welfare of her offspring by continuing to breed children she
cannot support, she has committed a crime and must be punished. The
punishment? She must be sterilized to prevent her from perpetrating her
crimes upon more innocent children."
There is no doubt that a rising population is one of the factors which
threatens the world's capacity to support its people, but human population
growth is being massively outstripped by the growth in the number of farm
animals. While the rich world's consumption is supposed to be boundless, the
human population is likely to peak within the next few decades. But
population growth is the one factor for which the poor can be blamed and
from which the rich can be excused, so it is the one factor which is
It is possible to change the way we live. The economist Bernard Lietaer has
shown how a system based upon negative rates of interest would ensure that
we accord greater economic value to future resources than to present ones.
By shifting taxation from employment to environmental destruction,
governments could tax over-consumption out of existence. But everyone who
holds power today knows that her political survival depends upon stealing
from the future to give to the present.
Overturning this calculation is the greatest challenge humanity has ever
faced. We need to reverse not only the fundamental presumptions of political
and economic life, but also the polarity of our moral compass. Everything we
thought was good - giving more exciting presents to our children, flying to
a friend's wedding, even buying newspapers - turns out also to be bad. It
is, perhaps, hardly surprising that so many deny the problem with such
But to live in these times without striving to change them
is like watching, with serenity, the oncoming truck in your path.
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